大事记

大事记

副标题

1929

24 Oct.: Stock market crashes. 10月24日股市崩盘

1930

8 May: Gary Snyder born in San Francisco; Hart Crane, The Bridge; Ezra Pound, A Draft of XXX Cantos. 3月3日加里•斯奈德出生于旧金山;哈特•克兰的杰作《桥》;艾兹拉•庞德,第三十诗章的起草。

1932Snyder's family moves to Washington State; family is extremely poor during Depression years; Hart Crane commits Suicide; Sylvia Plath born. 斯奈德举家迁往华盛顿州,在大萧条时期,家庭非常贫困,哈特•克兰自杀。
1939William Butler Yeats dies. 威廉•巴特勒•叶芝辞世。
19417 Dec.: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; US enters Second World War. 十二月七日,日本偷袭珍珠港,美国加入第二次世界大战。
1942Snyder's family moves to Portland, Oregon.斯奈德家人迁往俄勒冈州波特兰市。
19457 Dec.: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; US enters Second World War. 十二月七日,日本偷袭珍珠港,美国加入第二次世界大战。
1942President Truman authorises dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; end of Second World War. 杜鲁门总统批准在日本广岛和长崎投放原子弹;第二次世界大战结束。
1946William Carlos Williams, Paterson, Book One; Robert Lowell, Lord Weary's Castle. 威廉•卡洛斯•威廉,《帕特森》卷一;罗伯特•洛威尔,《威利爵爷的城堡》
1947Autumn: Snyder begins undergraduate study at Reed College, Portland, Oregon, on scholarship. 秋季:斯奈德开始在俄勒冈州波特兰市里德学院开始大学学习,并获得奖学金。
1948Summer: Snyder ships out for New York as seaman; John Berryman, The Dispossessed; Theodore Roethke, The Lost Son. 夏季:斯奈德作为海员乘 船前往纽约;约翰•贝里曼,《被逐》;西奥多•罗特克 《迷失的儿子》
1950Charles Olson, 'Projective Verse'; US population officially reaches 151 million; Snyder marries Alison Gass; Snyder publishes first poems in Reed College student publication; Summer: Snyder works for Park Service excavating the archaeological site of Fort Vancouver. 查尔斯•奥尔森,“投射体诗”;美国人口官方数据以达1.51亿;斯奈德与Alison Gass 完婚;斯奈德在里德学院学生刊物出版了他的处女作;夏季:斯奈德在温哥华堡垒 挖掘考古遗址的公园管理处工作。
1950-5lSnyder writes senior thesis at Reed: The Dimensions of a Haida Myth. 斯奈德在里德学院写大四的论文:《海达神话的特征》。
1951Spring: Snyder graduates from Reed with BA in anthropology and literature; Summer: Snyder works as timber scaler on Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon; Autumn: Snyder begins graduate programme in anthropology at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, but stays only one semester. 春季:斯奈德从里德学院毕业,获得人类学和文学学士学位;夏季:斯奈德在俄勒 冈州印第安保护区的温泉从事木材定标工作;秋季:斯奈德开始在美国印第安纳州 布卢明顿的印第安纳大学学习人类学的研究生课程,但只有一个学期。
1952Spring: Snyder returns to San Francisco, does odd jobs, lives with Philip Whalen, also a Zen Buddhist; Summer: Snyder works as mountain forest lookout in Baker National Forest; divorces Alison Gass. 春季:斯奈德回到旧金山,打零工,与另一位禅宗佛教徒飞利浦•惠轮一起居住, 夏天:与Alison Gass离婚。
1953-56Snyder studies Oriental culture and languages at University of California at Berkeley. 斯奈德在加州大学伯克利分校学习东方语言与文化。
1953Summer: Snyder works as lookout in Baker National Forest Sourdough Mountain;on Autumn: Snyder meets Kenneth Rexroth. 夏季:斯奈德在贝克国家森林Sourdough山做瞭望员;秋季:斯奈德遇到了Kenneth Rexroth。
1954Summer: Snyder works at lumber camp; Wallace Stevens, Collected Poems. 夏季:斯奈德在木材营工作;华莱士•史蒂文斯,《诗集》。
1955Summer: Snyder works on trail crew at Yosemite National Park - experiential source of Riprap; translates Cold Mountain Poems; Autumn: the retrospectively named San Francisco Renaissance is inaugurated as Allen Ginsberg reads Howl at the Six Gallery,San Francisco; Snyder meets Ginsberg and Kerouac in San Francisco; lives with Kerouac in cabin in Mill Valley - source of Kerouac'sThe Dharma Bums; Wallace Stevens dies. 夏季:斯奈德在约塞米蒂国家公园做山径工作人员,为他创作《砾石》提供了经验 和素材;翻译《寒山诗》;秋季:艾伦•金斯堡在旧金山的六画廊朗诵了“嚎叫” (“Howl”),艾伦怀旧的将其称为旧金山文艺复兴;斯奈德在旧金山遇到了金斯堡 和凯鲁亚克;他和凯鲁亚克住在Mill流域的小木屋—这为凯鲁亚克的《达摩流浪者》 提供了素材;华莱士•史蒂文斯辞世。
1956May: Snyder goes to Japan for first time on scholarship from First Zen Institute of America; lives in Zen Temple; October:Ginsberg; Howl and Other Poems. 五月:斯奈德从美国从第一禅学院获得奖学金首次赴日本;住在禅寺;十月:金斯•伯格,《嚎叫和其他诗》。
1957August: Snyder boards Sappa Creek in Yokohama, works as wiper in engine room; visits: Persian Gulf five times, Italy, Turkey, Okinawa, Wake, Guam, Ceylon, Pago Pago, Samoa; Jack Kerouac, On the Road. 八月:斯奈德在横滨Sappa河登陆,在引擎室做擦拭员;游览:波斯湾五次,意大利,土耳其,冲绳岛,威克岛,关岛,锡兰,巴哥巴哥,萨摩亚;凯鲁亚克,《在路上》。
1958April: Snyder gets off ship, returns to San Francisco; Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums. 四月:斯奈德下船;回到旧金山;杰克•凯鲁亚克(Jack Kerouac),《达摩流浪者》
1959-65Snyder lives in Kyoto, Japan; studies under Zen master Oda Sesso Roshi. 斯奈德住在日本京都,师从禅师Oda Sesso Roshi。
1959Snyder, Riprap; Robert Lowell, Life Studies; Robert Duncan, Selected Poems. 斯奈德,《砾石》;罗伯特•洛威尔(Robert Lowell),生活研究(Life Studies); 罗伯特•邓肯,《诗选》(Selected Poems)。
1960Snyder, Myths & Texts; Donald Allen (ed.), The New American Poetry; Charles Olson, first volume of The Maximus Poems; Snyder marries Joanne Kyger. 斯奈德,《神话与文本》;Donald Allen(编辑),《美国新诗》;查尔斯•奥尔森 (Charles Olson)《马克西穆斯的诗》第一卷;斯奈德和Joanne Kyger结婚。
196120 Jan.: Inauguration of J. F. Kennedy as US President; Allen Ginsberg, Kaddish. 一月二十日:J. F.肯尼迪作为美国总统发表就职演讲。艾伦•金斯堡,《祈祷》( Kaddish)
1962John Ashberry, The Tennis Court Oath. John Ashberry,《网球场誓言》。
1963November: assassination of President Kennedy; William Carlos Williams dies; 11 Feb.: Sylvia Plath commits suicide. 十一月:肯尼迪总统遭暗杀;William Carlos Williams去世;二月十一日:西尔 维亚普拉斯(Sylvia Plath)自杀。
1964-65Snyder is lecturer in English at University of California at Berkeley. 斯奈德成为加州大学伯克利分校英语系讲师。
1964Snyder receives Bess Hoskin Prize; separates from Joanne Kyger. 斯奈德获得贝丝霍斯金奖;与妻子Joanne Kyger分开。
1965-68Snyder studies Zen Buddhism in Japan; race riots shake US. 斯奈德在日本修习日本禅宗;种族骚乱撼动美国。
1965Snyder, Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems; Six Sections from Mountains and Rivers Without End; Sylvia Plath, Ariel; T. S. Eliot dies; Autumn: Snyder returns to Japan; divorces Joanne Kyger. 斯奈德,《砾石集与寒山诗集》;《山河无尽》六章;西尔维亚普拉斯(Sylvia Plath) 《爱丽儿》;T.S.艾略特辞世;秋季:斯奈德回到日本;与Joanne Kyger离婚。
1966Snyder awarded prize by National Institute of Arts and Letters; returns to US; A Range of Poemspublished in England. 斯奈德获得由国家艺术和文学研究所颁发的奖金;返回美国;在英国出版《一系列诗集》(A Range of Poems)
1966March: Snyder returns to Japan, lives on Banyan Ashram, marries Masa Uehara on rim of active volcano. 三月:斯奈德回到日本,靠榕树修行所为生,和Masa Uehara在火火山边缘结婚。
1968-72Student protests on US campuses across nation. 整个国家的学生对美国校园提出抗议。
1967Snyder publishes The Back Country; returns to US; receives Levinson Prize from Poetry (Chicago), and is awarded Guggenheim Fellowship; son Kai born; Charles Olson, Maximus Poems: IV, V, VI; assassination of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King. 斯奈德发表《僻壤》;回到美国;获得莱文森诗歌奖(芝加哥),被授予古根海 姆奖学金; 儿子开出(Kai)世;查尔斯•奥尔森(Charles Olson)《马克西穆斯的诗》第四卷,第五卷,第六卷;罗伯特•肯尼迪和马丁•路德金被暗杀。
1968Snyder, Earth House Hold; Vine Deloria, Jr, Custer Died For Your Sins; Snyder's son Gen born. 斯奈德,《大地家族》;韦恩•迪罗瑞亚(Vine Deloria, Jr,)《卡斯特死于你的罪恶》(Custer Died For YourSins);斯奈德的儿子玄(Gen)出世。
1969Snyder, Regarding Wave; Charles Olson dies; National Guard fires on students at Kent State University, Ohio. 斯奈德,《观浪》;查尔斯•奥尔森(Charles Olson)去世;俄亥俄州国民警卫队向在肯特州立大学的学生射击。
1971Snyder builds his own house,‘Kitkitdizze’, in foothills of Sierra Nevada. 斯奈德内华达山脉山麓修建了一座自己的房子,名为:Kitkitdizze。
1972Ezra Pound dies; boundary 2: a journal of postmodern culture founded by William Spanos and Robert Kroetsch; Snyder attends United Nations Conference on Human Environment, Stockholm, Sweden. 艾兹拉•庞德(Ezra Pound)去世;《边界2:后现代文化的杂志》由William Spanos和Robert Kroetsch创建。
1973Snyder, The Fudo Trilogy; war in Vietnam officially over. 斯奈德,不动明王三部曲;在越南战争正式结束。
1974Snyder, Turtle Island; Anne Sexton commits suicide. 斯奈德,《龟岛》;Anne Sexton自杀。
1975Snyder awarded Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Turtle Island; Olson, The Maximus Poems: Volume Three; 27 Dec.: first MLA panel on Snyder's poetry held in San Francisco. 斯奈德的《龟岛》被授予普利策奖;查尔斯•奥尔森(Charles Olson)《马克西穆斯的诗》卷三;12月27日,首届现代语言协会专家组在旧金山讨论斯奈德的诗歌。
1976First critical book-length study of Snyder published: Bob Steuding, Gary Snyder. 第一本研究斯奈德的评论书籍出版:Bob Steuding,《加里•斯奈德》。
1976Snyder, The Old Ways; Robert Lowell dies. 斯奈德,《古风》;Robert Lowell辞世。
1978Snyder publishes his Reed thesis: He Who Hunted Birds in His Father's Village: The Dimensions of a Haida Myth. 斯奈德出版了他在里德学院的毕业论文:《在父亲的村子里猎鸟的人:一个海达神话的特征》
1979Snyder, The Real Work. 斯奈德,《本真之行》
1983Snyder, Axe Handles; second critical study of Snyder appears: Charles Molesworth, Gary Snyder's Vision. 斯奈德,《斧柄》;第二本研究斯奈德的评论书籍出版:查尔斯莫尔斯沃思,《斯奈德的视野》
1986Snyder, Left Out in the Rain (previously unpublished poems written between 1947 and 1985). 斯奈德,《留在雨中》(写于1947至1985年而未发表的诗)
198720 May: Snyder inducted into American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. 五月20日:斯奈德入选美国科学院和艺术和文学研究所。
1990December: MLA panel in Chicago: Gary Snyder at 60. from Dean, Tim. Gary Snyder and the American Unconscious: Inhabiting the Ground. 12月:现代语言协会专家组在芝加哥:‘加里•斯奈德六十岁’。Tim Dean,加里•斯奈德和美国无意识:栖息于地面。
1991Marries Carole Koda. Fall Snyder, Koda and Sakaki travel in Japan. 与Carole Koda完婚,秋季,斯奈德,Koda和Sakaki同游日本。
1992Travels in Ladakh and readings in Spain. No Nature published. 游览拉达克,在西班牙朗诵。《无性》出版。
1994Travels in Botswana and Zimbabwe with Kai and Gen Snyder. 与儿子“开”和“玄”游览博茨瓦纳和津巴布韦
1995A Place in Space published. Readings in Ireland. Fall trip to Nepal with Carole Koda and daughter, trek to Base Camp on Sagarmatha 《天地一隅》出版。在爱尔兰朗诵。秋季与Carole Koda和女儿去尼泊尔旅行,经过艰苦跋涉,到达珠穆朗玛峰上的营地。

(from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/snyder/chronology.htm)